Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) Input Systems

Our CJK input systems provide a means to enter characters in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.  When the input window has the focus, you can always press F1 to bring up the Help System.

Chinese Input System

The Chinese Input System allows the user to enter Chinese characters and punctuation in University of Arizona CALI Windows software.  When an application will accept Chinese characters, the input window appears on the screen.  The user types pinyin, converts to Hanzi, and presses the Enter key.  The Chinese text appears at the insertion point in the host application.  The user can switch between normal keyboard input and Chinese input by pressing the Right-Alt key.

Chinese input is performed in two steps.  First, the user types pinyin text using the keyboard.  This text initially appears in green to indicate that it has not been converted to pinyin syllables.  Second, the user presses the Space key to convert the text to syllables and enter the Hanzi selection mode.  A list of possible Hanzi compounds or characters appears for the user to consider.  Using the up and down arrow keys, the user highlights the appropriate selection and presses Space.  The input system automatically proceeds to the next unconverted compound or syllable until the conversion is complete.  The user can cancel the Hanzi selection process by pressing the Escape key and re-enter the selection process by pressing Space.  Once all the syllables have been converted to Hanzi, the user presses the Enter key to send the Chinese text to the host application.

Features:

  • Supports left and right arrow keys, Home, and End.  If the Shift key is held down, the caret (flashing cursor) will begin highlighting text.
  • Highlighted text is replaced when another character (letter, number, or symbol) is entered from the keyboard.  Pressing Delete or Backspace will erase highlighted text.  If no text exists in the input window, characters in the host application are erased.
  • The Hanzi selection list supports Page Up and Page Down in addition to the up and down arrow keys.  If an unconverted syllable lies to the right or left of the current syllable, the respective arrow key will move to the new syllable.
  • To convert a specific syllable (or reconvert a particular Hanzi character), highlight the syllable with the mouse or shifted-arrow keys and press Space.
  • When converting a compound, the options "Shorter match" or "Longer match" may appear in the Hanzi selection list.  Choosing these options broadens or narrows the search criteria for possible Hanzi matches.
  • Tone marks are entered by number: bei1, bei2, bei3, bei4, bei5 are
    (bei0 is equivalent to bei5.)  If no Hanzi for a particular syllable exists in the input dictionary, the tone for the syllable is automatically removed to broaden the search.
  • To enter ü or ê from the keyboard, type the accent key (`) followed by u or e respectively.
  • When text is initially entered, it appears in green; this text is waiting to be converted to pinyin syllables.  If the user moves the caret outside of the green text's boundary, it is abandoned and disappears.  This "feature" pertains more to the Japanese and Korean Input Systems, but is included here for consistency between the "CJK" languages.

Japanese Input System

The Japanese Input System allows the user to enter Japanese characters and punctuation in University of Arizona CALI Windows Software.  When an application will accept Japanese characters, the input window appears on the screen.  The user enters kana, converts to kanji, and presses the Enter key.  The Japanese text appears at the insertion point in the host application.  The user can switch between normal keyboard input and Japanese input by pressing the Right-Alt Key.

Japanese input is performed in two steps.  First, the user types romaji characters which appear in green.  Hiragana and katakana replace this text as convertible sequences are typed.  For example: the user presses the "k" key and a green "k" appears; the user presses the "a" key, and the "k" is replaced by the hiragana character "ka".  Second, the user presses the Space key to convert to Kanji.  A list of possible Kanji compounds or characters appears for the user to consider.  Using the up and down arrow keys, the user highlights the appropriate selection and presses Space again.  The Enter key sends the text to the host application.

NOTE: The Japanese Input System is designed for entering text one word at a time.  CALI multilingual text editors preserve the order in which characters are entered, allowing the authoring system to automatically determine word boundaries.  The input window supports a maximum of 15 characters at a time.

Features:

  • Supports left and right arrow keys, Home, and End.  If the Shift key is held down, the caret (flashing cursor) will begin highlighting text.
  • Highlighted text is replaced when another character (letter, number, or symbol) is entered from the keyboard.  Pressing Delete or Backspace will erase highlighted text.
  • Supports both the Japanese Information Standard and Heburn romanization systems.
  • Romaji is converted directly to kana as the user types.
  • Katakana is generated when the shift key is held down ("ka" is hiragana‚ "KA" is katakana).
  • When converting to Kanji, the options "Shorter match" or "Longer match" may appear in the Kanji selection list.  Choosing these options broadens or narrows the search criteria for possible Kanji matches.
  • The small "tsu" character is automatically added for double consonants (katta is "ka," small "tsu," followed by "ta").
  • The "n" character is interpreted as an "n" key followed by punctuation, a consonant, the Enter or Space key, or an apostrophe.  Note that "honya" is interpreted as HO_NYA whereas "hon'ya" is converted to HO_N_YA.
  • When a particular kana-to-kanji conversion is not in the internal lookup dictionary, it is possible to highlight portions of the word and press the Space key to convert it piece-wise.
  • When text is initially entered, it appears in green; this text changes to kana automatically when complete romaji-to-kana sequences exist.  If the user moves the caret (flashing cursor) outside of the green text's boundary, it is abandoned and disappears.  This "feature" keeps the input window clean from stray, unconverted romaji characters.  If the Enter key is pressed while unconvertible text exists, it is discarded, and the remaining kana characters are sent to the host application.

Keyboard Mappings for Japanese Input Standard and Heburn Romanization Systems

Basic sequences:

Longer Sequences:

Extended Sequences:

Punctuation:

Korean Input System

The Korean Input System allows the user to enter Korean characters and punctuation in University of Arizona CALI Windows Software.  When an application will accept Korean characters, the input window appears on the screen.  The user types in Hangul, converts to Hanja, and presses the Enter key.  The Korean text appears at the insertion point in the host application.  The user can switch between normal keyboard input and Korean input by pressing the Right-Alt key.

The user enters Hangul text with either the Standard keyboard or Morse Equivalents.  If the user presses Space or Enter, the text is sent the host application.  The user presses the F4 key to enter the Hanja selection mode.  A list of possible Hanja compounds or characters appears for the user to consider.  Using the up and down arrow keys, the user highlights the appropriate selection and presses Space.  The input system automatically proceeds to the next unconverted compound or syllable.  Once all the syllables have been converted to Hanja, the user presses the Enter key to send the Korean text to the host application.  The Esc key will abort the Hanja selection mode.

Features:

  • Supports left and right arrow keys, Home, and End.  If the Shift key is held down, the caret (flashing cursor) will begin highlighting text.
  • Highlighted text is replaced when another character (letter, number, or symbol) is entered from the keyboard.  Pressing Delete or Backspace will erase highlighted text.  If no text exists in the input window, characters in the host application are erased.
  • The Hanja selection list supports the following cursor keys: Page Up, Page Down, Up, Down, Home, and End.  If unconverted syllables exist to the right or left of the current selection, the Right and Left arrow keys will move to the new syllable.  The Esc key aborts the Hanja selection mode.
  • To convert a specific syllable, select the character with the mouse or shift-arrow keys and press F4.
  • When converting a compound, the options "Shorter Match" or "Longer match" may appear in the selection list.  Choosing these options broadens or narrows the search criteria for possible Hanja matches.  If no Hanja character can be found for the syllable, the words "No Match" appears.
  • The input window supports elaborate editing.  Inserting consonants and vowels between Hangul characters is supported as well as smart deletion.  When the backspace or delete is pressed, the appropriate glyph in the character is removed.
  • To switch between Morse Equivalents and the Standard Keyboard, press F2.
  • There are five Hangul characters which draw in an unusual way due to the above design.  The final forms of all five are correct; however, their intermediate forms (usually just before the last key is typed) are somewhat awkward.  They are: